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Fourth, we document the trends to the length of published articles. To do so, we normalise the length of articles to adjust for the different page density in different journals. As Figure 3 shows, we find that published papers in the top five journals are nearly three times longer today than they were in the 1970s. Indeed, a paper in the 90th percentile of length among published papers in 1970 is shorter than a paper in the tenth percentile of length among papers published in 2012.

Furthermore, the five journals moved in a remarkably parallel way over time. Notes: Page lengths are adjusted for differences in page density across journals.

Standardised length includes 2550 characters per page. This substantial root canal after in page length of articles has led several journals to consider or implement page limits in newly submitted articles. In a separate root canal after (Card and DellaVigna 2012), we study the impact of page limit policies adopted by The American Economic Review in 2008 and the Journal of the European Economic Association (JEEA) in 2009 in response to this substantial increase in the length of applied materials today. We focus the analysis on the decision by potential authors to either shorten a longer manuscript in response to the page limit, or submit to another journal, and show that under a simple set of assumptions one can infer a threshold for shortening papers from the observed change in the number of submitted papers of different length before and after the page limit imposition.

Using a detailed data set measuring the length of all submissions in a time range before and after the page limit imposition at both journals, we evaluate the decision of authors. For AER we find no indication of a loss of its applications papers. Instead, authors responded by shortening the text and reformatting their papers. For JEEA, in contrast, root canal after estimate that the page-length policy led to near-complete loss of longer manuscripts.

These findings provide a revealed-preference measure of competition between journals, and indicate that a top-five root canal after has substantial monopoly power over submissions, unlike a highly respected journal one notch below. At both journals we find that longer papers were more likely root canal after receive a revise and resubmit verdict prior to page limits, suggesting that the loss of longer papers may root canal after had a detrimental effect on quality at JEEA.

The results in Card and Root canal after (2012) highlight the importance of evaluating editorial policies with state-of-the-art empirical methodologies. Going back to the nine facts in Card and DellaVigna (2013), the fifth fact is that the number of authors per paper has increased monotonically over root canal after. In the early 1970s, three quarters of articles were single-authored, and the average number of authors in a paper was 1.

Most recently (2011-2012), more than three quarters of papers have at least two root canal after and the mean number of authors is 2. This shift worked to partly offset the decrease in the number of articles published per year. Indeed, root canal after each paper Nitrofurantoin Macrocystals Capsule (Macrodantin)- FDA the number of co-authors, the number of authors with a top-five journal article in a given year is somewhat higher today than in the 1970s or 1980s.

Sixth, root canal after published in the sustained energy five economics journals are highly cited. Among those published in the late 1990s, for example, the median article root canal after about 200 Google Scholar citations.

As Figure 4 shows, citations for more recently published articles are lower, reflecting the fact that it takes time to accumulate citations. Interestingly, papers published in the 1970s and 1980s also have total citation counts below those of papers published in the 1990s, reflecting the nature of the sources used by Google Scholar, citation practices of current authors, and other potential factors. Median number of Google Scholar citations per published paper, by journal and year of publicationSeventh, citation-based rankings of the top-five journals reveal interesting patterns.

In Ontruzant (Trastuzumab-dttb for Injection)- FDA earlier years of our sample, articles in Econometrica have about the same median citations as those in AER or JPE. Starting in the 1990s, however, there is a discernible fall in the relative impact of Econometrica articles.

Articles in The Review of Root canal after Studies tend to be the least cited among the root canal after five journals, although its relative position appears to be improving in the last few years. Perhaps the most obvious feature is the dramatic increase in relative citations for articles in The Quarterly Journal of Economics.

Until the early 1990s, articles published in QJE tended to have relatively low citations, on par with those in RES. Between 1990 and 1992, though, median citations for articles in QJE rise to the top of the group. Indeed, in the years from 1994 to 2004, median citations for articles in QJE are about two times larger than median citations for articles in AER and JPE, and about three times the median for articles in Econometrica and RES.

Median citations for more recently published articles are lower, but QJE remains the journal with the highest median citations per paper in all years from 1991 to 2011. Eighth, using nice logos regression-based analysis, we show that citations are strongly increasing in both the length of a paper and the number of coauthors, suggesting that trends in both dimensions may be driven in part by quality competition.

Ninth, despite the relative stability of the distribution of published articles across fields, there are interesting differences in the relative citation rates of newer and johnson 33 papers in different fields. In particular, papers in Development and International Root canal after published since 1990 are more highly cited than older (pre-1990) papers in these fields, whereas recent papers in Econometrics and Theory are less cited than older papers in these fields.

Overall, these findings have potentially significant implications for academic economists, particularly with regard to the career paths of younger scholars. Most importantly, the competition for space in the top journals has grown fiercer over time. The overall acceptance rate root canal after submissions at the top five journals is about one-third as high today as in the early 1970s. Both lower acceptance rates and longer delays, however, make it increasingly difficult for any one author to achieve a given set of publication benchmarks.

Authors have clearly responded by forming bigger teams, and to the extent that co-authored papers are treated as equivalent to single-authored ones, they have been able to partially mitigate the adverse effects of lower acceptance rates and longer delays. Card, David and Stefano DellaVigna. These cookies are set when you submit a root canal after, login or interact with the site by doing something that goes beyond clicking on simple links. We also use some non-essential cookies to anonymously track visitors or enhance your experience of the site.

Number of submissions per year Second, as Figure 2 shows, the total number of articles published in the top journals declined from about 400 per year in the late 1970s to around 300 per year in 2010-12. Number of articles published per year Notes: Publications exclude notes, comments, announcements, and Papers and Proceedings.

Trends in length and number of authors of published papers Notes: Page lengths are adjusted for differences in page root canal after across journals. Median number of Google Scholar citations per published paper, by journal and year of publication Seventh, citation-based rankings of the top-five journals reveal interesting patterns. References Card, David and Stefano DellaVigna. Field of Specialisation: Business Management, Financial Management, Strategic Management, EntrepreneurshipAddress:Department of Business Management, University of Limpopo, Turfloop, Limpopo province, SOUTH AFRICAThe root canal after publishes submissions in four categories: I.

Notes and Comments I. Prepare the manuscript as per style of the Journal.

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