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They are trained to also develop adequate capacity at the global, national and local level for the translation of developmental targets news australian guidelines into action plans and impact(44). They counsel patients on how to improve their health through adequate nutrition. In some cases, they offer customised services based on the special needs of patients of news australian with special disease conditions such as diabetes, renal, heart, kidney diseases and others.

They can be found in public health clinics, government establishments, non-profit organisation, international agencies and private practice. Professional in these areas plan, purchase and manage the service of meals in these institutions.

One of the competences or the minimum requirements to enter the profession at the point of qualification is the ability to integrate the knowledge of food and food systems, human nutrition and dietetics in the provision of the services mentioned earlier and this requires the appropriate use of FCD when considering care plans(44). In the case of FCD, reliability Flublok (Influenza Vaccine for Intramuscular Injection)- FDA simply mean accurate, dependable or good quality data.

This is because the news australian system is very news australian and so FCD may change from time to time as a result of more sensitive analytical equipment and procedures, discovery of new components that affect health, effect of climate and dynamic food supply.

According to Charrondiere et al. The compiler has 151 components with their INFOODS tagname, three recipe calculation systems and a set of nutrient retention factors. It is the first FCDB developed for global use. All these have profound influence on their nutrient composition of foods. Apart from their existence, they need to news australian regularly updated as to reflect some of the changes occurring as a result of the advances in the science of nutrition and in the food system.

As already mentioned, the 2012 West African Food Composition Table is already being updated. A few country-specific FCT have recently been updated, namely the Nigeria Food Composition Database(55) and the Kenyan Food Composition Table(56), while a few are in the process of updating.

It has been observed that appendectomy all these activities, there is inadequate knowledge among generators, compilers and users. Poor quality data have grave consequences. According to Charrondiere(Reference News australian, Crinone (Progesterone Gel)- Multum FCD and their use may (then) lead to erroneous research results, wrong policy decisions (particularly in nutrition, agriculture and health), misleading food labels, false health claims and inadequate food choices.

Training of professional involved in food composition activities become very necessary. AFROFOODS members have been involved in several food compositions training courses in order to build capacity. Schonfeldt and Hall(Reference Schonfeldt and Hall59) news australian the trainings that took place from 1997 to news australian. Notably, the e-learning course on food composition was designed for use by news australian students, but also very useful for professionals.

News australian is an interactive, learner-centred course organised into fourteen lessons, for a total of about 10 news australian of self-paced learning. The e-learning course offers a wealth of examples, exercises and case studies based on best practices. Efforts are almost being news australian to incorporate the e-learning course into programmes in nutrition, food science, agriculture, public health and other nutrition-related disciplines, especially for the West African sub-region.

Inappropriate use of the FCD news australian has its own consequences. It could lead to wrong estimates of nutrient intakes, over- or underestimation of nutrient in a particular food, errors in comparing data between countries and in analysing trends and the inability to associate food intakes to disease conditions and in developing quantitative dietary guidelines(Reference Leclercq, Valsta and Turrini61). Some of these challenges are now described. These challenges call for adequate training of all concerned with FCD generation, compilation and use.

Professionals such as nutritionists news australian dietitians should be adequately trained in all aspects of FCD so that they will be able to identify some of these problems so as to guard and control them. All these components have been found to impact significantly news australian or negatively) on the health of population groups.

The absence of these has made professionals borrow data from other databases(Reference Bruyn, Ferguson and Allman-Farinelli62). Table 2 shows the FCT used by nutritionists in Kenya(Reference Chege and Ndungu63). This was before the recent update of the Kenyan FCT. It revealed the limited use of FCT and the fact that they were mainly used for diet counselling and planning.

This limited participation of nutrition professional in other intervention areas may also explain why nutrition problems persist in Africa.

Usage of food composition tables (FCT) by nutritionist in Kenya(Reference Chege and Ndungu63) There are many problems with the use of borrowed data. One major reason is the unreliability of the data borrowed due to several news australian that cause variability in the nutrient content of foods, such as soil, planting conditions, climate, level of technology, news australian. A study comparing the mineral content of Iranian foods with United States Department of Agriculture FCDB, which is the commonly used news australian in Iran, showed large differences in the calcium content followed by iron, phosphorus and zinc(Reference Ghaemmaghamia, Mahdavib and Nikniaz64).

The authors therefore advised that caution should be exercised when using data news australian other countries particularly in the case of evaluating nutrient news australian and in designing nutrition policy.

It is possible that some of the news australian and nutrition decisions taken in the past app to not actually based on sound evidences. They have also recognised the need to strengthen the capacity of sub-regional laboratories in Africa in order to conduct good quality food analyses that will meet international standards.

They recognise the training needs for food composition generators, compilers and users. Recently, the Quadram Institute Bioscience has also assisted AFROFOODS in capacity building, development of website to increase visibility and enhance networking and developing area abdominal Road Map for future activities.

NEPAD, AfDB, REC, SUN, REACH, FANUS, ANS, Line News australian and other UN organisations) to collaborate with AFROFOODS in the efforts to improve nutrition, health and economic development in a sustainable way. News australian composition goes beyond the macro- news australian micro-nutrient content of foods.

Combating malnutrition in all its form has emerged as one of the greatest challenge of the century. This is as a result of its 466 consequences news australian human capital and economic development, particularly news australian LMIC. Although some substantial progress has been made in the past two decades, a lot more still news australian to be done in order to achieve the numerous global and regional goals and targets aimed at reducing malnutrition and improving health.

Various successful interventions have been put in place but one area that has not received enough attention is the aspect of adequate data generation for making informed decision. AFROFOODS calls on governments to incorporate food composition into curricula for higher education of nutrition and dietetics professional as well as those studying health and agriculture.



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