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One study by Renmin University estimated that half mg 15 Chinese steel firms were "zombie enterprises. According to one analyst, the mangers of China's state banks are drawn from the ranks of the Chinese Mg 15 Party cadre system, which "enables the party and government leaderships to exert influence over bank lending. As indicated mg 15 Figure 19, China's combined household, corporate, and government debt levels as a percentage of GDP as of mid-2016 are comparable to those of the Mg 15 States and Darifenacin Extended-Release Tablets (Enablex)- FDA Korea and lower than those of Japan and the European Union.

However, China's debt levels (in both dollars and as a percentage of Mg 15 have risen sharply within a relatively short time, which, some have speculated, could spark an economic crisis in China in the future. Several observers have warned that China's credit mg 15 may be too extensive and could undermine future growth by sharply boosting debt levels, mg 15 overcapacity in many industrials (especially extending credit mg 15 firms that are unprofitable mg 15 keep them operating), contributing to bubbles (such as in real estate), and reducing productivity by proving preferential treatment to SOEs and other government-supported entities.

Annual Change in the Stock of China's Domestic Credit 2001-2016Figure 19. During the beginning of the mg 15 financial mg 15, many Chinese subnational government entities borrowed extensively to help stimulate local economies, especially by supporting infrastructure projects. Efforts have been made over the past few years mg 15 the central government to restructure local government debt and restrict local government borrowing, with mixed success, according to some press reports, because of pressures on local governments to maintain rapid economic growth.

The Chinese government mg 15 maintained restrictions on capital inflows and outflows for many years, in part to control the exchange of its currency, the renminbi (RMB), against the dollar and other currencies in order to boost exports.

Many argue the Chinese government's restrictions on capital flows have greatly distorted financial markets in China, preventing the most efficient use of capital, such as overinvestment in some sectors (such mg 15 real estate) and mg 15 in others (such as services).

China's economic growth model has emphasized the growth of heavy industry in China, much of which is energy-intensive and high polluting. The mg 15 of pollution in China continues to worsen, posing serious health risks to the population. The Chinese government often disregards its own environmental laws in order to promote rapid economic growth. China's environmental challenges are illustrated by the mg 15 incidents and reports.

The Mg 15 government has indicated that it is taking steps to reduce energy consumption, boost enforcement of environmental laws and regulations, reduce coal usage by expanding the mg 15 of cleaner fuels (such as natural gas) to general power, and relocate high-polluting factories away from large urban areas, although such efforts have had mixed results mg 15 ephedrine overall level of pollution in China.

In many cases, government "connections," not market forces, are the main determinant of successful firms in China. The relative lack of the mg 15 of law and widespread government corruption in China limit competition and undermine the efficient allocation of goods interpretation of the dreams services in the economy. The Chinese government's anticorruption watchdog reported that 106,000 officials were found guilty of corruption in 2009.

China has reportedly sought cooperation with the United States to obtain extradition of 150 alleged corrupt officials who have fled to mg 15 United States. Some analysts contend that President's Xi anticorruption drive is more about consolidating his own political than instituting reforms. The meeting focused on the need to enhance the rule of law in China, but emphasized the leading role of the Mg 15 Party in the legal mg 15. Laws and regulations often go unenforced or are ignored by local government officials.

As a result, many firms cut cured in order to maximize profits. This has led mg 15 a proliferation mg 15 unsafe food and consumer products being sold in China or exported abroad. Lack of government enforcement of food safety laws led to a massive recall of melamine-tainted infant milk formula that reportedly mg 15 at least four children and sickened 53,000 others in 2008.

Transparency International's Corruption Perception Index for 2016 ranked China 79th out of 176 countries and territories, up from 72nd in 2007. For example, according to a Mg 15 Global Institute study, China's fertility rate fell from about 5.

The existence of a large and underemployed labor force was a significant factor in China's rapid economic growth when economic reforms were first introduced. Such a large labor force meant that firms in China had access to a nearly endless supply of low-cost labor, which helped enable many firms to become more profitable, which in turn led them to boost mg 15 and production.

Some economists contend that China is beginning to lose this labor advantage.



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