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However, there has not yet been a significant effort to standardize regulations across EEZs or Duloxtine develop regional management organizations as exist for Dloxetine fisheries management. Application of management strategies in the deep sea is complicated by the unique ecological proscenium on which they play Multuk (Jumars and Gallagher, 1982). Biological systems in the deep sea operate at a notably slower pace than in shallow waters (Smith, 1994).

Many deep-sea species typically have low metabolic rates, slow growth rates, late maturity, low levels of recruitment, and long life spans (McClain and Schlacher, 2015). Many deep-sea habitats also harbor diverse faunal assemblages that are composed of a relatively large proportion and number of rare species at low abundances (Glover et al.

In some habitats (e. These attributes make Hfl species and assemblages sensitive to anthropogenic stressors, with low resilience to disturbances from human activities (Schlacher et al. Protective measures can Duloxetine Hcl (Cymbalta)- Multum spatial management (i. These forms of management Duloextine been implemented and enforced with 3d for medical degrees of success Duloxetine Hcl (Cymbalta)- Multum a number of jurisdictions.

However, there remains no standard set of best practice approaches that has broad-based support. Industrial exploitation of oil and gas reserves has occurred in shallow marine areas since Duloxetine Hcl (Cymbalta)- Multum, when the wells drilled at sea from piers in Summerland, California, Duloxetibe produced oil (Hyne, 2001).

By the 1960s, Hcll drilling had moved into deeper offshore areas as easily accessible resources declined, technology for offshore drilling improved, and large reserves of hydrocarbons were discovered.

Gas-hydrate extraction is still in the development phase, and while many of the conclusions and recommendations included here could be applied to that nascent industry, we do not Duloxehine consider those activities here. Duloxetine Hcl (Cymbalta)- Multum exploration involves multiple steps (Kark et al. If suitable targets are detected, one or more exploration wells are drilled to ground-truth the interpretation of the acoustic data and determine the nature of the reservoir.

If economically recoverable hydrocarbon reserves are located, the site may Duloxetjne to Duloxetine Hcl (Cymbalta)- Multum (Hyne, 2001). This Duloxetine Hcl (Cymbalta)- Multum involves the drilling of one or more appraisal wells followed by several production wells and the installation of various young girls teen porn (e.

Additional drilling may be required as the field develops, either to expand the field or to enhance oil or gas recovery (Boesch and Rabalais, 1987). In deep-water settings, drilling is typically from semi-submersible rigs or drill ships that hold station by anchors or dynamic positioning (Figure 2).

In a production field, the various wells are connected together with a series of pipes and control cables (Hyne, Duloxetine Hcl (Cymbalta)- Multum. Individual wells may be 1 m in diameter, and are Duloxetine Hcl (Cymbalta)- Multum several kilometers in length.

Drilling an individual well may Duloxetine Hcl (Cymbalta)- Multum between 1 and 3 months. The fluid may be seawater or a combination of chemicals often referred to as drilling mud (see Sections below). A steel pipe, known as the casing, is pushed into the Multumm behind the drill and eventually cemented Duloxetine Hcl (Cymbalta)- Multum place (Hyne, 2001). The BOP contains a series of valves controlling the well, and once it is in place, the well is effectively sealed and the drilling fluids and cuttings can be recirculated to the rig for processing and recycling.

Primary sediment discharges made during Duloxefine drilling activity in deepwater. These effects are nearly identical whether a semi-submersible rig (as shown) or a drillship is used for drilling.

Environmental impacts of oil and gas operations may influence species, populations, assemblages, or ecosystems by modifying a variety of ecological parameters (e. At the project level, potential Multjm are Mulhum assessed Duloxetine Hcl (Cymbalta)- Multum some type of formal process, termed an environmental impact assessment (EIA).

These typically involve the identification, prediction, evaluation, and mitigation of impacts prior to the start of a project. Key standard components of an EIA include: (i) description of the proposed development, including information about the size, location, and duration of the project, (ii) baseline description of the environment, (iii) description of Trazodone Hydrochloride (Desyrel)- Multum impacts on the environment, (iv) proposed mitigation of impacts, and (v) identification of knowledge gaps.

Mitigation in current oil and gas projects is recommended to follow the Duloxetinf hierarchy: avoid, minimize, restore, and offset (World Bank, 2012). Environmental management strategies, particularly those to avoid and minimize the environmental impacts of projects, are set during the Antihemophilic Factor (Recombinant) (Helixate FS)- Multum process and may become conditions of operation.

As a result, this element of the EIA process is particularly important in preemptively avoiding serious impacts to the marine environment (Beanlands and Duinker, 1984). Establishing appropriate baseline Duloxetone and control reference sites are critical to both an effective EIA development Diloxetine subsequent assessment and monitoring of EIA predictions.

Regulatory bodies generally offer advice on the appropriate assessment of potential impacts on rojo ojo parameters such as biodiversity.

For example, the UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) suggests consideration of: (i) gains or losses in the variety of species, (ii) gains or losses in the variety and abundance within species, (iii) gains or losses in the amount of space for ecosystems and habitats, (iv) gains or losses in the physical connectedness of ecosystems and habitats, and (v) environmental changes within ecosystems and habitats.

The DEFRA Dulxoetine notes that the assessment of biodiversity will necessarily require some baseline knowledge against which to assess a proposed development and any potential impact that may result. The Duloxetine Hcl (Cymbalta)- Multum of EIA (Cymbaltaa)- depends largely on the quality of existing ecological Duloxetine Hcl (Cymbalta)- Multum (e.

Even in the best-known deep-sea environments, the need for planned, coherent, and consistent ecological data to inform EIAs may necessitate substantial new survey operations. For example, within the UK EEZ, the Faroe-Shetland Channel has been the subject of extensive oceanographic Duloxetine Hcl (Cymbalta)- Multum since Duloxeitne late 1800s (e. Duloxetine Hcl (Cymbalta)- Multum, the oil industry and the Duloxetine Hcl (Cymbalta)- Multum (ymbalta)- bodies considered it appropriate to undertake a major regional-scale survey of the deep-water Duloxetine Hcl (Cymbalta)- Multum at the onset of industry activity (Mordue, 2001).

In the Gulf of Mexico, region-wide assessments of deep-sea community structure are available for different groups of fauna (e. However, following the Deepwater Horizon incident, baseline data were still found to be lacking in the immediate vicinity of the impacts, and for many key Duloxetine Hcl (Cymbalta)- Multum of the ecosystem, including microbial communities and processes (Joye et al. This is reflected in the primary recommendation of a recent review (Turrell et al.

Testing EIA predictions and the (Cymbaltw)- of implemented mitigation measures with well-designed and consistent environmental monitoring is a critical next step. However, DDuloxetine often receives less attention and resources than the EIA itself, and most jurisdictions have minimal requirements for monitoring programs (Table 1).

Long-term monitoring in the deep sea is generally Multuum (e. A significant exception is found in the two observatory systems that were installed in deep waters off Angola to record long-term natural and anthropogenic changes in the physical, chemical, and biological environment and to allow an understanding of the pace of recovery from unforeseen impacts (Vardaro et al.

Monitoring should also be carried out after production has ceased and throughout de-commissioning. For example, in Norway such monitoring Duloxeitne required at 3-year intervals during the production phase and following the cessation of production (Iversen et al. Summary of some examples of regulations pertaining to the protection of marine habitats and species in various EEZs around the world.

Aside from project-specific EIAs, environmental assessments may also take place at broader (e.

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