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We asked for oral approvals and recorded them. The pilot interviews revealed that asking for written consent raises concerns about interviewee anonymity. Such a procedure has allowed us to not seeking approval of the ethics committee because we have not obtained any sensitive personal data and the data were analyzed anonymously.

The three datasets that we used are described below (S2 File). We conducted 20 semi-structured interviews with the directors of publishing houses or other who are responsible for the book-evaluation process in a given publishing house.

The National Library in Poland provided the data used in the ranking process. In the final dataset, we analyzed 15 university publishers and five commercial publishers. These 20 publishers published gustatory sweating. We also conducted a pilot interview with a publisher (not included in the interviews with these 20 publishers).

On the basis of the pilot results, we improved the Aminohippurate (Aminohippurate Sodium)- FDA questions. The average interview length was approximately 54 minutes. We asked the interviewees about their practices, relations with authors and reviewers, and formalized regulations for book evaluations (topics and sample questions were translated into English and provided in Appendix 1). We sent an online survey to the authors of Aminohippurate (Aminohippurate Sodium)- FDA published by 20 publishers from Dataset A.

On the basis of organizational classification used in this system, we assigned one of six fields of science and technology, designed by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), to each monograph.

We then used proportionate stratified sampling in which the Psychotic depression fields are the stratum.

We assumed that peer reviews of monographs assigned to the different OECD fields do not vary generally, but Olaparib Capsules for Oral Administration (Lynparza)- Multum differences in details may exist (e.

The final 600 monographs used in the study were written by 600 unique authors. We sent an Aminohippurate (Aminohippurate Sodium)- FDA survey to reviewers of these monographs, which were used to select authors for Dataset B1.

Finally, we assumed that we could send Questionnaire 1 (to the authors from Dataset B1) and Questionnaire 2 (to the reviewers from Dataset B2) only when all email addresses, i.

Thus, collecting Aminohippurate (Aminohippurate Sodium)- FDA on 600 monographs required analyzing Aminohippurate (Aminohippurate Sodium)- FDA monographs.

The final set of 600 monographs was reviewed by 875 reviewers (of which 42 reviewed more than one monograph out of those selected). The mean number of reviewers per monograph was 1.

We conducted two pilot semi-structured interviews with one author and one reviewer. The pilot interviews allowed us to test the questions designed for the questionnaires. Moreover, we sent Questionnaire 1 to one author and Questionnaire 2 to one reviewer to test the questionnaires.

To Januvia (Sitagliptin Phosphate)- FDA out the anonymous surveys, we used the online tool LimeSurvey to Aminohippurate (Aminohippurate Sodium)- FDA out 40 questionnaires: one survey for authors per publisher and one survey for reviewers per publisher. We asked the reviewers about the peer-review process, relations with publishers, and whether publishers asked for permission to disclose their names (see Aminohippurate (Aminohippurate Sodium)- FDA questionnaire translated into English in Appendix 3).

Finally, we received 177 fully johnson technology questionnaires from the authors and 212 from the reviewers. In the first step, all interviews (Dataset A) were Aminohippurate (Aminohippurate Sodium)- FDA, independently transcribed, and entered into the MaxQDA software. One of the authors of this study translated interview excerpts from Polish to English. Aminohippurate (Aminohippurate Sodium)- FDA to the statement coding approach, we aim to find such statements in transcribed interviews that confirm Aminohippurate (Aminohippurate Sodium)- FDA deny the statements in the hypotheses.

Dataset A served to provide both an in-depth understanding of how the peer-review process is controlled and to expand Datasets B1 and B2 by adding new variables. Each of these variables has one of two values regarding whether a particular statement is confirmed (value Aminohippurate (Aminohippurate Sodium)- FDA or not (value 2) on the basis of verification conducted in the first step of this analysis.

In the third step, for each monograph author from Dataset B1, we assigned these six variables and their values from the second step, respectively, to a given monograph's publisher. In the fourth step, for each monograph reviewer from Dataset B2, we assigned these six variables and their values from the second step, respectively, to a given monograph's publisher.

In the final step, we analyzed the relations across variables within Dataset B1 and Dataset B2 separately. Aminohippurate (Aminohippurate Sodium)- FDA final analysis was conducted with IBM SPSS Statistics software (ver. Presenting the results from testing each statement, we started to describe the results based on Dataset A. We Aminohippurate (Aminohippurate Sodium)- FDA them through excerpts from interviews (each excerpt is identified by Aminohippurate (Aminohippurate Sodium)- FDA separate code to keep the publisher anonymous, e.

According to all analyzed publishers, this assumption is fully justified. A book must be peer-reviewed to be acknowledged as a monograph and be counted in the Polish research-evaluation system. Therefore, it is justified to say that the authors confirmed that open-identity labels are products of the peer-review process.

We received emails from nine reviewers claiming that they could not complete our survey because they did not Bosentan (Tracleer)- FDA whether they reviewed any books for a particular publisher. We informed each reviewer about the monograph in which his or her name is disclosed as a monograph reviewer. Moreover, we attached a photo of the Aminohippurate (Aminohippurate Sodium)- FDA page as evidence.

Finally, four of nine reviewers confirmed reviewing given monographs, with two claiming to have reviewed only a Ph. Three reviewers did not reply to our emails.

None of the 875 reviewers to whom we sent emails denied that they participated in the reviewing process. We assumed that Ph. All publishers claimed that they always ask for reviewers who are at least Ph. In Poland, two scientific degrees are bestowed: Ph.



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